2 edition of Effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete state-of-knowledge found in the catalog.
Effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete state-of-knowledge
R. P Webster
by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC
Written in English
|Statement||R.P. Webster and L.E. Kukacka|
|Contributions||Kukacka, Lawrence E, Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||2 p. ;|
Acid deposition, more commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) react in the atmosphere (with water, oxygen, and oxidants) to . The Portland cement was replaced by insoluble residue which varied in amounts of 0%, %, %, %, %, %, % and % by weight. The results showed that the addition of the insoluble residue from % to % by weight in Portland cement did not affect the normal consistency or setting times of cement.
properties of the two types of cement mentioned above begins to reduce even when the percentage of alkalis still increases. Through the use of the ordinary Portland cement (type I) and the sulfate resisting Portland cement (type V), it is found that there is a little difference in the value of the physical properties. Keywords: Alkali, Percent. PLC is a slightly modified version of portland cement that improves both the environmental footprint and potentially the basic performance of concrete. It is now described in ASTM and AASHTO specifications and is used just like traditional portland cement in mix designs. It can be made at any portland cement manufacturing plant.
Portland Limestone Cement Part I - Preparation of Cements cement are required when making cement nomenclature. For example, CEM II/A-M (S-V-LL) R is the abbreviation of early strength Portland composite cement of MPa strength class, incorporating % granulated blast furnace slag, siliceous fly ash and. Initial cement setting time, compressive strength, and density measurements. The initial setting times of the cements, that is the time when the cement ceases to be malleable, were measured in a normal laboratory environment (20–23°C and 50–60% humidity) using the Gilmore needle test with a needle of g and mm diameter according to the ASTM standard.
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EFFECTS OF ACID DEPOSITION ON THE PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE STATE-OF-KNOWLEDGE R. Webster and L. Kukacka Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY DW Project Officer John W.
Spence Emissions Measurement an.d Characterization Division Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory. Get this from a library.
Effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete state-of-knowledge. [R P Webster; Lawrence E Kukacka; Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory.]. Laboratory Research Triangle Park NC Research and Development EPA//S/ Apr. f/EPA Project Summary Effects of Acid Deposition on the Properties of Portland Cement Concrete State-of-Knowledge R.
Webster and L. Kukacka Presented are the results of a program conducted to determine the state-of- the-art knowledge pertaining. Presented are the results of a program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency, conducted to determine the state-of-the-art knowledge pertaining to the effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete structures (PCC).
Presented are the results of a program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency, conducted to determine the state-of-the-art knowledge pertaining to the effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete structures (PCC).
Information was collected from a computerized literature survey, interviews, and replies to mail and telephone inquiries addressed to cement.
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is highly alkaline in nature with pH values above When the cement paste comes into contact with the acids its components break down, this phenomenon is known as acid attack. If pH decreases to values lower than stability limits of cement hydrates, then the corresponding hydrate loses calcium and decomposes to amorphous hydrogel.
Portland cement gets its strength from chemical reactions between the cement and water. The process is known as hydration.
This is a complex process that is best understood by first understanding the chemical composition of cement. Manufacture of cement Portland cement is manufactured by crushing, milling and proportioning the following materials. Vivek Bindiganavile, Meghdad Hoseini, in Developments in the Formulation and Reinforcement of Concrete (Second Edition), Portland cement.
Portland cement is the main cementitious component of foamed concrete. It has been used at dosages varying from as high as kg/m 3 to as low as 75 kg/m 3 but in practice, usually between and kg/m 3. Portland cement concrete usually does not have good resistance to acids.
Some weak acids, however, can be tolerated, particularly if the exposure is occasional ().There are essentially three ways to improve concrete’s resistance to acids, (1) choosing the right concrete composition to make it as impermeable as possible, (2) isolating it from the environment by using a suitable.
Portland cement concrete is durable in most natural environments; however, concrete is sometimes used in areas where it is exposed to substances that can attack and deteriorate it. This publication discusses the effects of many substances on concrete and provides guidelines to protective treatments.
The cement manufacturing industry was an EPA New Source Review/Prevention of Significant Deterioration (NSR/PSD) national enforcement initiative in fiscal years and was continued as a Reducing Air Pollution from the Largest Sources national enforcement initiative for fiscal years The cement sector is the third largest industrial source of pollution.
Presented are the results of a program conducted to determine the state-of-the-art knowledge pertaining to the effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete. However, concrete is sometimes exposed to substances that can attack and cause deterioration.
Concrete in chemical manufacturing and storage facilities is especially prone to chemical attack. The effect of sulfates and chlorides is discussed below.
Acids attack concrete by dissolving the cement paste and calcium-based aggregates. At the end of the induction period rapid reaction occurs. In Portland cement the main hydration product is deposited around the hydrating cement grains, so that after the first few hours the rate of reaction is progressively slowed CACs, in contrast, the hydration products are deposited throughout space (Figure ).The rate of reaction only slows due to one of the.
The retardation mechanism of gypsum is: when cement is hydrated, gypsum reacts with C3A quickly to generate calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate which deposits and forms a protection film on the cement particles to hinder the hydration of C3A and delay the setting time of cement.
Water Impurities and their Effect on Concrete Properties. The effect of various properties on the concrete properties are explained below: Effect of Suspended Particles in Water on Concrete Properties. If the mixing water contains suspended particles in an amount up to percent by weight of total water used in concrete, it will not affect the concrete properties.
Assessment of the State of Knowledge on the Long-range Transport of Air Pollutants and Acid Deposition. Part 6, Effects on Man-made Structures. prepared by P.J. Sereda for Environment Canada, August Google Scholar. Updated June 18th, We generally use hydraulic cement in our construction which is best known as Portland cement.
Cement properties vary in different “types of cement” because of different percentage of “cement ingredients“. To construct economical concrete structures or cementitious product it is essential to know the properties of cement.
Cement properties. concrete by dissolving part of the cement do not cause any expansion, but progressively weaken the material by removal of cementing constituents forming soft and mushy mass. Paulo J.M. and etal specify that, any water with pH value less than may be aggressive in there action because of, a reduction of.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in the mid 19th century, and usually originates from is a fine powder, produced by heating limestone and clay minerals in a kiln to form clinker, grinding.
Cement, as a binding material, is a very important building material. Almost every construction work requires cement. Therefore, the composition of cement is a matter of great interest to engineers. For understanding cement composition, one must know the functionality of Cement .Revised IDLH: 5, mg/m 3 Basis for revised IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that an acute exposure to a high concentration of Portland cement would impede escape or cause any irreversible health effects within 30 minutes.
However, the revised IDLH for portland cement is 5, mg/m 3 based on being times the NIOSH REL of 10 mg/m 3 .PERFORMANCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE by Pedro Nel Quiroga and David W. Fowler The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas Report ICAR F Project Number Research Project Title: The Effects of Aggregate Characteristics on the Performance of Portland Cement Concrete Sponsored by the International Center for Aggregates Research.